Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions

In the area of mitigation, IKI supports partner countries in developing and implementing innovative instruments for reducing their greenhouse gas emissions. These include measures for transitioning to a sustainable, low-emission economic and energy supply structure and developing low-carbon development strategies (LCDS), nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) and systems for measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) of greenhouse gas emissions and reduction measures.

Of great relevance for the mitigation funding area are the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) – in which the parties formulate their climate objectives for submission to the UNFCCC Secretariat ahead of the 21st session of the Conference of the Parties (COP 21) in Paris in December 2015. IKI has been advising more than 25 partner countries on the preparation of their INDCs since early 2014.

Numerous projects also pursue the aim of mobilising additional public and private capital for climate change mitigation. The conceptual focus is on policy advice, capacity building and appropriate training measures, and also technological lighthouse projects and technological cooperation schemes.

From 2008 to 2016, a total of 289 projects with a funding volume of EUR 1088 million were approved in the area of mitigation.

Low emissions development strategies and nationally appropriate mitigation actions

LEDS and NAMAs support sustainable and ambitious mitigation efforts undertaken by developing countries, and constitute key instruments arising from negotiations held in the context of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). LEDS provide a strategic framework for climate-friendly development. They aim to promote economic development while ensuring lower levels of greenhouse gas emissions than would be anticipated under a business-as-usual scenario. Among other things, LEDS are helpful in identifying and prioritising relevant political and economic action areas, and in creating suitable conditions for promoting low-carbon economic processes and lifestyles. LEDS often form the basis on which NAMAs are designed.

NAMAs are voluntary actions by the governments of emerging economies and developing countries that focus on initiating transformation processes in individual sectors and achieving long-term reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. They can be implemented in a range of different sectors, including energy and transportation.

IKI projects support partner countries in developing LEDS or recommendations for NAMAs, gaining access to funding, and implementing specific activities. They promote the exchange of knowledge across countries and across sectors, while also testing various instruments for developing and implementing mitigation actions.

Selected projects:

Monitoring of greenhouse gas emissions and mitigation actions

Since international climate negotiations were initiated, considerable attention has been given to the question of how to monitor, report and verify the reduction in greenhouse gases (MRV). The term MRV comprises the collection of data on mitigation actions and greenhouse gas emissions, the processing of this information into reports and inventories, and the verification of data in an international process. The development of MRV systems and application of MRV requirements represent considerable challenges for emerging economies and developing countries, who must assume responsibility for collecting the necessary data and producing greenhouse gas inventories, emission projections and economic analyses.

In this context, the IKI provides targeted support to projects that help the partner countries to plan and implement mitigation actions and ensure these actions will be MRV-compatible under a future international climate agreement.

MRV activities of the IKI Enhanced NAMA Cooperation Group

The follwing document provides an overview on what each of the participants of the “IKI Enhanced NAMA Cooperation Group” is doing related to MRV: download (Excel, 32 kb)

Selected projects:

IKI projects constitute an important component of the 'Partnership on Transparency in the Paris Agreement' (PaTPA, former MRV-partnership) that was established in 2010 by South Africa, South Korea and Germany. This partnership aims to promote the exchange of practical experience and expertise related to mitigation and MRV among participating countries, thereby helping to establish a common understanding of what is necessary and feasible in this field.

For more information about the partnership: (external)

Promoting cooperation with the private sector

The private sector has a key role to play in achieving the 'two-degree target' agreed at the recent climate negotiations, and mobilising its resources will be essential in achieving far-reaching climate protection goals.

The IKI therefore supports projects that eliminate major barriers to greater engagement by the private sector, for example by reducing the financial risks associated with investing in climate technologies in developing countries and emerging economies. IKI projects also provide capital for public-private partnerships, impart the necessary expertise - e.g. enabling finance institutions to support energy-efficiency projects in target countries – and create suitable conditions for private investment in target countries by providing advisory support to governments.

Selected projects: